Unveiling the Truth About Microfracture Surgery: Your Questions Answered

Unveiling the Truth About Microfracture Surgery: Your Questions Answered

Navigating the complexities of cartilage repair can be challenging. With evolving surgical techniques and differing opinions, it's crucial to address the most pressing questions about microfracture surgery. Let's dive into your most common inquiries.

Is Microfracture Still a Viable Option for Cartilage Repair in Modern Orthopaedics?

microfracture surgery, once a cornerstone technique for small cartilage defects, is now scrutinized due to advancements in orthopaedics. While it remains an option for certain cases, its suitability is increasingly limited to specific, smaller defects.

Why Are Surgeons Hesitant About Microfracture for Cartilage Repair?

Surgeons' hesitation stems from limitations like subchondral bone overgrowth, the formation of fibrocartilage (less durable than hyaline cartilage), and questions about its long-term efficacy (Mithoefer et al., 2009; Green et al., 2016).

What Long-Term Outcomes Can Patients Expect from Microfracture Surgery?

Long-term outcomes of microfracture can be unpredictable. While it can provide temporary relief, the formation of fibrocartilage, which is less resilient than hyaline cartilage, might lead to the necessity for additional interventions in the future (Mohan et al., 2015).

For Which Patients is Microfracture Surgery Most Suitable?

Microfracture is most suitable for younger patients with small, localized cartilage defects. It's less appropriate for larger lesions or in older patients with more advanced joint degeneration (Kim et al., 2015).

Are There Better Alternatives to Microfracture Surgery for Cartilage Repair?

Yes, there are more advanced alternatives like ACI and MACI, offering better outcomes for larger defects or where the durability of the repair is crucial. These methods are particularly beneficial in cases where microfracture's limitations are a concern.

How Has cartilage repair Evolved Beyond microfracture surgery?

cartilage repair has evolved significantly with innovations in regenerative medicine, including stem cell therapies and scaffold-based techniques. These advancements promise enhanced durability and functionality over traditional microfracture surgery.

Why Does microfracture surgery Expect Cartilage Formation When Fracturing Bone, and Does This Approach Make Sense?

This is an astute observation. Typically, when a bone fractures, the natural healing process leads to bone formation. However, microfracture surgery, intriguingly, aims to stimulate cartilage growth by creating small fractures in the subchondral bone. The premise behind this technique is that the healing response initiated by these fractures will lead to the formation of new cartilage. Yet, this expectation does present a paradox.

In practice, the "healing" often results in the formation of fibrocartilage, which is different from the original hyaline cartilage in durability and function. Fibrocartilage is more akin to scar tissue than the smooth, resilient cartilage that coats healthy joint surfaces. This outcome raises valid questions about the logic and effectiveness of relying on a bone healing response to repair cartilage. It underscores why microfracture may not always be the optimal approach, particularly for extensive or critical cartilage repair, where restoring the joint's original biomechanical properties is crucial.

This discrepancy between the expected outcome (cartilage regeneration) and the body's natural healing response (bone formation or fibrocartilage development) is one of the reasons why orthopaedic surgeons are exploring and advocating for more advanced and targeted treatments for cartilage repair.


Microfracture surgery's role in cartilage repair is changing. While it's not obsolete, it's essential to understand its limitations and consider more advanced alternatives for better outcomes. Patient-specific factors remain key in deciding the most suitable treatment approach.



  • Mithoefer, K. et al. (2009). Clinical efficacy of the microfracture technique for articular cartilage repair in the knee. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(10), pp. 2053-2063. DOI: 10.1177/0363546508328414.
  • Green, C. et al. (2016). The biology and clinical evidence of microfracture in hip preservation surgery. Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery, 3(2), pp. 108-123. DOI: 10.1093/jhps/hnw007.
  • Mohan, N. et al. (2015). Microsphere-based gradient implants for osteochondral regeneration: a long-term study in sheep. Regenerative Medicine, 10(6), pp. 709-728. DOI: 10.2217/rme.15.38.
  • Kim, J. et al. (2015). In vivo animal study and clinical outcomes of autologous atelocollagen-induced chondrogenesis for osteochondral lesion treatment. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 10(1). DOI: 10.1186/s13018-015-0212-x.
  • Hevesi, M. et al. (2019). Is microfracture necessary? Acetabular chondrolabral debridement/abrasion demonstrates similar outcomes and survival to microfracture in hip arthroscopy: a multicenter analysis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 47(7), pp. 1670-1678. DOI: 10.1177/0363546519845346.