Comprehensive Guide to Lower Back Pain: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Miss Charlotte Barker
MSK Associate
Published at: 20/12/2023

Comprehensive Guide to Lower Back Pain: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments


Lower back pain, a prevalent condition, affects a significant portion of the population at some stage in their lives. It's a common issue that can be both debilitating and frustrating. In this guide, we aim to shed light on the causes, symptoms, and effective treatments for lower back pain, ensuring you are well-informed and equipped to manage this condition.

What Causes Lower Back Pain?

Lower back pain can stem from various sources, often involving the spine, muscles, nerves, or ligaments in the region. Common causes include:

  1. Muscle or Ligament Strain: Repeated heavy lifting or a sudden awkward movement can strain back muscles and spinal ligaments.
  2. Bulging or Ruptured Discs: Discs act as cushions between the bones in your spine. A disc's soft material can bulge or rupture and press on a nerve, causing pain.
  3. Arthritis: Osteoarthritis can affect the lower back. In some cases, arthritis in the spine can lead to a narrowing of the space around the spinal cord, a condition called spinal stenosis.
  4. Skeletal Irregularities: Conditions like scoliosis, a curvature of the spine, can lead to back pain later in life.
  5. Osteoporosis: Bones becoming porous and brittle can lead to compression fractures in your vertebrae.

Acute vs. Chronic Back Pain: Understanding the Difference

  • Acute Back Pain: This type of pain is sudden and intense, often resulting from an injury or specific incident. It typically lasts for a few days to a few weeks and usually resolves on its own with self-care. Acute pain is a body's normal response to injury or tissue damage.
  • Chronic Back Pain: This is defined as pain that persists for 12 weeks or longer, even after an initial injury or underlying cause of acute pain has been treated. Chronic pain can continue even without an identifiable cause and often requires a more comprehensive treatment approach.

In some cases, the pain experienced in the lower back may not originate from the back itself but from other areas of the body. This phenomenon is known as "referred pain." It is important for patients to understand this complex aspect of pain management.

What is Referred Pain?

Referred pain occurs when pain is felt in an area of the body other than its actual source. It's a type of pain that is perceived at a location different from the site of the painful stimulus. This happens because of the network of interconnecting sensory nerves, which can sometimes send pain signals to different areas in the body.

Referred Pain in Lower Back Issues

In the context of lower back pain, referred pain is crucial because the actual source of the pain may be from regions other than the lower back itself. Common sources of referred pain that manifest in the lower back include:

  1. Internal Organs: Problems with organs like the kidneys, pancreas, or appendix can refer pain to the lower back.
  2. Pelvic Issues: Conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease might manifest as lower back pain.
  3. Abdominal Disorders: Issues like ulcers or gastrointestinal distress can also refer pain to the back.

Identifying Referred Pain

Referred pain typically has the following characteristics:

  • Diffuse and Aching: Unlike pain that originates in the back, referred pain often feels more diffuse and aching.
  • Doesn't Worsen with Movement: Unlike specific lower back pain, referred pain usually doesn’t worsen with back movement.
  • No Clear Injury: Often, there's no clear injury or event that triggered the onset of the pain.

The Importance of Understanding Referred Pain

Understanding the concept of referred pain is essential for effective treatment. It helps in identifying the actual cause of the pain, ensuring appropriate and targeted treatment. It also prevents misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatments focused solely on the lower back when the problem might be elsewhere.

Symptoms to Watch For

The symptoms of lower back pain can vary from a dull ache to a stabbing or shooting sensation. The pain may make it difficult to move or stand up straight. Acute back pain comes on suddenly, often after an injury from sports or heavy lifting. Chronic back pain is defined as pain that persists for more than three months.


Your doctor will perform a physical exam and ask about your symptoms. In some cases, imaging tests like X-rays, MRI scans, or CT scans might be needed to determine the underlying cause of your pain.

Treatment Options

Most lower back pain gradually improves with home treatment and self-care, usually within a few weeks. Treatment options include:

  • Pain Relievers: Over-the-counter pain relievers and the application of heat might be all you need.
  • Physical Therapy: A physiotherapist can teach you exercises to increase your flexibility, strengthen your back and abdominal muscles, and improve your posture.
  • Injections: If other measures don't relieve your pain, your doctor might suggest steroid injections.
  • Surgery: Rarely needed for back pain, surgery might be an option if you have unrelenting pain and nerve compression causing muscle weakness.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies

Making lifestyle changes can help prevent or relieve most back pain episodes:

  • Exercise: Regular low-impact aerobic activities can increase strength and endurance in your back.
  • Build Muscle Strength and Flexibility: Abdominal and back muscle exercises help condition these muscles so that they work together like a natural corset for your back.
  • Maintain a Healthy Weight: Being overweight strains back muscles.
  • Quit Smoking: Smoking increases your risk of low back pain.


While lower back pain can be a significant hindrance to your daily life, understanding its causes, symptoms, and treatment options can empower you to manage it effectively. Knowing the difference between acute and chronic pain is crucial for appropriate management. Always consult with a healthcare professional for a diagnosis and personalised treatment plan.